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  About LNG  
 
     
  About LNG  
  Safety Information  
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  SAFETY INFORMATION
 
LNG is produced by cooling natural gas at atmospheric pressure to minus 260 degrees Fahrenheit, at which point it liquefies. It is odorless, colorless, noncorrosive, noncombustible, nontoxic and clean. If exposed to air, it quickly vaporizes back to its gaseous state and, since it is lighter than air, will rise under normal atmospheric conditions. LNG leaves no polluting residue after vaporizing.
 
  LNG Can be Managed Safely
 
LNG is not stored under pressure, so it is not explosive in the storage tanks of a ship or regasification terminal. Nor is it explosive if released into the atmosphere. According to the U.S. Department of Energy, there are no documented cases of LNG explosions in laboratory and open ocean tests. In the eight marine incidents where LNG has been released, it never caused an explosion or caught fire.
   
 
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  LNG Properties Demonstration Video
   
  LNG Has an Impressive Safety History
 
Stringent operational and safety regulations govern the transport and storage of LNG. As stated, only eight incidents have occurred where LNG was released into the atmosphere. These incidents would be impossible to replicate today because technology for transporting and storing LNG has improved immensely over the past 30 years, as have federal and state industrial safety regulations and standards.

Japan's LNG experience offers an excellent case study, as Japan imports nearly all of its natural gas in the form of LNG, some of it directly into Tokyo Harbor. According to the University of Houston Law Center Institute for Energy, Law & Enterprise, LNG carriers supplying Japan have not had any significant incidents or safety problems in port or while at sea. On average, an LNG ship safely enters Tokyo Harbor every 20 hours.

Many state and federal agencies are responsible for overseeing the safe design and operation of LNG production and receiving terminals in the United States and the arrival and departure of LNG carriers. Many agencies also closely regulate the design and operation of natural gas pipelines. Among those who typically oversee the permitting and operating at LNG facilities are the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. and State Departments of Transportation, appropriate emergency response organizations, U.S. Customs and Border Protection and Transportation Security Administration.

Other agencies involved could be the national and state Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the U.S Department of Energy and many others. The LNG industry follows additional codes, rules, regulations and standards established by organizations such as the Society of International Gas Tanker and Terminal Operators, the Gas Processor’s Association and the National Fire Protection Association.
   
  Safety
 
Modern terminals incorporate numerous safeguards in the design, construction and operation of the facility and employ state-of-the-art technology. For instance, most projects will use a full containment engineering design for onshore and offshore tanks. Full containment means that the LNG storage tanks are double-walled, which is basically a tank inside a tank.

The outer tank is made of pre-stressed concrete. The inner tank is specially designed to hold the very cold liquid and will consist of high-alloy steels with nine percent nickel. The space between the tank shells is filled with insulation material. Full containment tanks are designed so that if the inner tank fails, the outer tank is capable of safely containing all of the LNG.

LNG carriers use a double-hull design for increased safety. This design provides protection in the rare event of a collision or grounding. The double hull consists of a steel outer hull, along with a second steel inner hull, forming a void space approximately 10 feet in depth. The LNG tanks are constructed of either stainless steel or aluminum. They are heavily insulated to protect the steel hull from cold and to maintain the LNG cargo at its low temperature. The area between the inner hull and the LNG tanks is filled with a nitrogen gas blanket that is monitored for gas leakage so corrective action can be taken immediately if a leak occurs. These new vessels are also equipped with redundant power and steering systems as an extra measure of safety.

Both LNG vessels and facilities have redundant, nearly fail-safe safety systems. These systems automatically or manually shut down the operations completely when the vessel or facility is not performing correctly or in the event that certain operations or equipment fail. The facility also includes high-tech gas detection systems to rapidly identify even the slightest break in containment, as well as shut-off valves to immediately prevent leaks and spills in the improbable case of tank failure. Freeport LNG is striving for a perfect safety record and has made a serious philosophical, operational and financial commitment to ensure that it succeeds.
   
  Putting Technology to Work to Ensure Safety and Protect the Environment
 
State-of-the-art technology was used in the construction of all portions of the Freeport LNG Quintana Terminal and sendout pipeline to address safety and environmental issues. For instance, storage tanks are double-walled, constructed of a primary inner container of nine percent nickel-steel alloy and a secondary outer container of pre-stressed concrete.

The tanks are designed so both the primary container and the secondary container are capable of independently containing the LNG. No significant incidents have ever occurred with this type of nickel steel alloy and double wall design. Also, an extensive and often-redundant set of gas detection and shutdown systems has been put in place for both the facility and the pipeline not only to meet the requirements but to ensure safety. The facilities also have state-of-the-art security systems.

As stewards of the environment, Freeport LNG has taken strides to ensure the terminal's footprint is minimized and that the valuable resources on Quintana Island are protected. Wetland mitigation plans have been established for all phases of the project and steps to provide improvements have been taken, such as reducing beach erosion in and around the facility. Additional measures to protect the environment have already been incorporated into the design. Two good examples are the addition of high efficiency equipment designed to reduce air emissions during operations, and construction materials that have been optimized to ensure there is a reduced risk of hydrocarbon spills.
   
  Incident & Hurricane Plans
 
Emergency plans for Freeport LNG are in place, consistent with the active plans in place for the Brazoria County Department of Emergency Management and the Local Emergency Planning Commission. Routes of evacuation from Quintana Island have been developed for weather emergencies and adjacent petrochemical facility incidents.

The area-wide Community Awareness Emergency Response Group (CAER) group has comprehensive plans in place for incidents involving the Brazoria County Petrochemical complexes. Freeport LNG is an active and participating member of the Responsible CAER group and utilizes a consistent approach to activate and notify stakeholders in the event of an emergency.

Port Freeport has instituted rules governing hurricane preparedness. Freeport LNG complies fully with these rules. The Freeport LNG Quintana Terminal is designed to withstand a 100-year storm. In addition, a storm protection levee (SPL) has been constructed across the entire south side of the site as an extension to the existing Velasco Drainage District SPL. This levee provides protection to site facilities from wave action associated with a hurricane storm surge.
   
  Safety Pamphlet
 
Freeport LNG has prepared an emergency response information booklet that explains what residents, workers and visitors in the area immediately surrounding our terminal should know in the event of an emergency.

You can download the booklet here.